|Posted on July 28, 2016 at 5:05 PM|
I am a firm believer that nine times out of ten science proves what coaching discovers. Generally speaking, I have always noticed a trend in research where areas gaining in popularity with coaches become the focus of research after the fact. Although the two worlds (coaching and scientific research) should be left to their respective professionals, it doesn’t hurt for coaches to have a little background on what research is and how it is conducted on a basic level. Even if it’s not the coaches job to prove why something works or does not work, it is their responsibility to be able to systematically differentiate between effective and appropriate training methods and understanding the research that makes it possible.
Research is “a systematic process of discovery and advancement of human knowledge (Graton & Jones, 2010).” Research Methods and Design in Sport Management by Andrew, Pedersen, and McEvoy mention research can be classified according to five perspectives:
1 The application of the research study (pure or applied research and basic research).
2 The researcher’s objectives in undertaking the study (exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, or predictive).
3 The type of information sought (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods research).
4 The presence of data (theoretical or empirical research).
5 The data source analyzed (primary or secondary research).
When it comes to the application of the research study, there are two main focuses. Either the research is applied, which can also be referred to as pure research and is performed to solve a specific problem using more formal procedures and methods or the research is basic, which is conducted to gain a better understanding of a theoretical concept. Applied research is used in sports management for topics such as discovering why alcohol sales may be dropping at major league game events. Basic research could involve conducting a survey on what motivates students to attend their university sporting events.
The researcher’s objectives in undertaking the study can be one of four methods, exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, or predictive. Exploratory is used to explore a topic and gain basic knowledge on it. Exploratory is used to help identify a hypothesis rather than solve one. An example is conducting a focus group to identify what fitness club members enjoy most about their experience at the fitness club. Descriptive research objectives focus on what is happening rather than why it is happening. Descriptive research could be conducted by providing surveys or interviews to determine out of the fitness club members mentioned earlier, if they chose classes as their most enjoyable experience at the fitness club, descriptive research would conduct a study to determine what classes. Explanatory research is the next progression. Explanatory research hopes to answer why something is occurring. With our fitness club member example, this may involve conducting interviews asking why people prefer certain classes? What is it that the classes they enjoy provide that the other classes do not. Finally, there is predictive research which is conducted when people are interested in predicting the future outcome of an event. This may be predicting what new classes to add to a fitness studio class schedule.
The type of information sought depends on the purpose of the study, how variables are measured, and how information is analyzed. There are three labels for information sought: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods research. Qualitative information attempts to describe a problem abstractly. An example would be developing a historical analysis of events that lead to the popularity of baseball in America. Quantitative research involve strict instrumental-based methods and questions as well as measuring tools. Quantitative research may be interested in quantifying relationship between variables such as early morning exercise and exercise program adherence. Mixed-methods research is exactly as it sounds. Involving both abstract and strictly measured data that results in a conclusion involving both qualitative and quantitative data. Examples of mixed-method research in sports management are rare, but important to the field. They would involve linking two variables such as are morning exercisers who as a result adhere to fitness programs for more than six months more or less likely to be happier when with their families?
The presentation of data can be given in one of two ways. Theoretical which involves gathering and analyzing past research to come to new conclusions such as my paper on Gamification in Adventure and Wilderness Sports: A literature review of game-based mechanic’s ability to increase attraction, engagement, and retention in outdoor sports. The research was a review of literature from multiple disciplines that allowed me to come to novel conclusions on the topic. Empirical research on the other hand collects new data to form new ideas and theories. An example of empirical research is hosting interviews asking questions regarding sports participation and stress to determine which sports help reduce stress most and why.
Finally, the data source analyzed is a significant perspective of research. Data can either be primary or secondary. Primary research collects original data where secondary research does not collect original data but rather infers from past data. For instance, primary research is conducting a survey on satisfaction at a gym and secondary research would be analyzing existing research on sports motivation to determine which motivation methods work best for high school athletes.
In the end, all five perspectives of research mentioned in the book are equally important to research. A choice must be made by the researcher on how to use each perspective. With that said, there is no right or wrong answer since every adjustment to the research provides new ideas and theories for sports management.
Research design is vital to a successful outcome of a research project. If careful care is not given to initial research design, it can be very difficult to salvage an accurate and meaningful research project down the road. Knowing this, it is important to follow the steps of conducting research. Although these steps are presented in a specific order, they can be moved around or bounced back and forth. These researching steps are, select a problem of interest, conduct a thorough literature review on that problem, create a theoretical or conceptual framework aligned with the research problem, identify research questions uncovered from the prior steps to address weaknesses in literature review, identify new variables based upon these discoveries, and establish a hypothesis. As long as researchers follow these steps as they are further outlined in detail below, they will enter their research with a strong hypothesis.
When it comes to selecting a problem of interest, there are numerous sources ranging from reading existing literature, social concerns, popular issues, personal characteristics, brainstorming, professors, and practitioners. By reading existing literature in the field that interest you, it exposes you to ideas and topics you may not have known about or did not fully understands value. Existing literature is a great way to expand your knowledge on a subject while searching for holes that show problems for research. Social concerns are difficult because there is little research on them. With that said, there is also plenty of room for new theories and ideas. Although social concerns may involve more deep thought to create novel theories, they can open up new areas for research that you could be on the forefront. Popular ideas are similar to social concerns. Most popular ideas are popular because they are receiving new attention on social concerns that people are expressing interest. Popular ideas can gain the researcher a lot of attention in a field. Personal characteristics are important because they take into account your personal interest. If a researcher is going to spend months to years on a project, it should be something that interest them. When thinking about a research problem, think about what topics are of interest to you. Brainstorming is a good way to branch from what is known into the unknown and discover problems that otherwise may never have been discovered. There is power in numbers and sharing concerns and interest about a topic can unearth important problems that otherwise may never have been discovered. Professors are always a great source for identifying problems because professors are familiar with the research process. Although they may not know about your specific topic of interest, they understand the process of conducting research better than anyone else. Finally, practitioners. Even though practitioners may not have the research background of professors, they are also the best subject matter experts. By asking them questions, a lot can be discovered regarding a topic. By exploring some if not all of these sources of finding a problem of interest, it allows researchers to investigate potential topics from multiple angles until they find a problem that interest them the most.
Once a problem of interest is selected, a thorough research review must be conducted to determine what is already known on the subject. A literature review ensures the problem has not already been solved. If that is the case, adjustments can be made to the problem to make it novel. For instance, if the original problem was, “what is the best way to motivate high school soccer players?” But that problem has already been asked, the problem can be changed to, “what is the best way to motivate college soccer players?” By doing this, you are providing new insight to a topic that has already shown interest. During this stage, information is gathered to later identify weaknesses and variables and connect those variable to form novel relationship between the data.
After conducting a thorough research review, a theoretical or conceptual framework must be developed. Theoretical frameworks are based upon ideas previously established in literature, whereas a conceptual framework entails creating original ideas by linking concepts from the literature. Knowing this, it is important to remember the two terms are often incorrectly used interchangeably. A conceptual framework is composed of five steps to review literature. These steps are:
Identify the relevant concepts in the study.
Relevant concepts must be defined.
Variables must be operationalized (i.e. the researcher needs to clearly define how each variable will be measured).
Identify moderating and mediating variables in the study (Moderating variables change the relationship between two variables and mediating variables explain the relationship between two other variables).
Identify the proposed relationship between each of the variables.
Now that all of the variables have been identified, it is a good time to identify a possible research question. Research questions are generally composed of two types of variables. The first being independent variables which are the ones manipulated in the research, and the other being dependent variables which are the ones that are changed as a result of the independent variables manipulation. Dependent variables are the answers we are attempting to find when we combine two knowns to discover the unknown. When determining which question will provide the most value and is worth conducting months if not years of research, the researcher should take into account the following concerns:
Does it address gaps or weakness?
Is the question clear and concise?
Is it too broad or too narrow?
Can the question be answered logistically, in a reasonable manner?
Can I access the subjects or information necessary to answer the research question?
Are the potential answers to the question interesting and important?
Asking these questions is valuable to the researcher to ensure they are conducting valuable research.
Upon determining the best question to answer, it is time to develop a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a relationship between concepts based upon prior research. Graton and Jones (2004) note four characteristics of a good hypothesis:
It must be able to explain findings and relationships that arise from data collection.
Admit empirical testing by means of data analysis.
It should require very few assumptions and be valid under numerous circumstances.
A good hypothesis presents better explanatory power than their alternatives.
If the hypothesis possesses all four of these characteristics, it is worthy of being sought out.
Andrew, D.P., Pedersen, P.M., & McEvoy, C.D. (2011). Research methods and design in sport management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2010). Research methods for sports studies (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Johnson, C.P. (2016). Gamification in Adventure and Wilderness Sports: A literature review of game-based mechanic’s ability to increase attraction, engagement, and retention in outdoor sports. The Sports Journal.